1G is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology was introduced in 1980s.This is analogue based mobile phone technology. It has few category such as NMT9(Nordic mobile telephone) used in eastern Europe and Russia , AMPS short for advance mobile phone system used in USA, TACS short for total access communications system used in UK Japan, and Germany
2G is short for second generation of mobile wireless communication technology, which uses the digital technologies for the mobile communication. 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based (GSM) and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. It allows slow data communications, but its primary focus is voice. Introduced in USA in1978
Using digital signals between the handsets and the towers works in two key ways:
- Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codec’s allowing more calls to be packed into the same amount of radio bandwidth
- The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. This meant that cells could be smaller, so more cells could be placed in the same amount of space. This was also made possible by cell towers and related equipment getting less expensive.
- Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as sms and email
- 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phones
- phones last much longer between charges
- The lower powered radio signals require less battery power, so batteries can be smaller.
- The lower power emissions helped address health concerns.
3G is short for third generation mobile phone technology
It is based on the (ITU) International Telecommunication union family of standards of IMT 2000.
3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. Services include wide-area wireless voice,voice telephony video call and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Additional features also include HSPA data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds up to 14.4Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8Mbit/s on the uplink.
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched in Germany by NTT DoCoMo branded FOMA in May 2001. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on October 1, 2001.
The first European pre-commercial network was at the Isle of man by Manx Telecom, the operator owned by BT(British telecom), and the first commercial network in Europe was opened for business by Telenor of Norway in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers. These were both on the W-CDMA technology.
The second network to go commercially live was by SK TELECOM in South Korea technology in January 2002. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was launched by KTF on EV-DO and thus the Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators
The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet mobile network on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut down operations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in October 2003 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO, and this network has grown strongly since then.
The first African use of 3G technology was a 3G videocall made in Johannesburg on the Vodacom network in November 2004. The first commercial launch of 3G in Africa was by EMTEL in Mauritius on the W-CDMA standard. In Morocco in late March 2006, a 3G service was provided by the new company by Wana.
Rogers began implementing 3G HSDPA services in eastern Canada early 2007 in the form of Rogers vision. Fido and Rogers Wireless now offer 3G service in most urban centres.
By June 2007 the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. Out of 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 6.7%. In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – over half of all subscribers use 3G.
In Europe the leading country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries by 3G migration include UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level. A confusing statistic is counting CDMA 2000 1x RTT customers as if they were 3G customers. If using this oft-disputed definition, then the total 3G subscriber base would be 475 million at June 2007 and 15.8% of all subscribers worldwide
In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the GMSA. In Asia, Europe, Canada and the USA, telecommunication companies useW-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.
Still several major countries such as Turkey, China, Indonesia, etc have not awarded 3G licenses and customers await 3G services. China has been delaying its decisions on 3G for many years, partly hoping to have the Chinese 3G standard, TD-SCDMA, to mature for commercial production.
Major features of 3G mobile
- Internet accessibility
- Data sharing (audio, text, video)
- Sms and mms
- Web browser
- Virtual keyboard
- All frequency friendly (800,850,900,1900,2100)MHz
- TV, Video, Film watching
- New Software installation capable
- File copy pasting
- Video conferencing
- Global roaming without change of handset
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